June 30, 2015

Sari Temple - Bhubaneswar

Site Name: Sari Deul Temple 
Site Type: Hindu ancient temple
Location:   Near Bindu Sagar tank, Bhubaneswar city, Odisha state, India
Highlights: Architecturally beautiful ancient temple - belongs to 13th century CE - Gangas period 
Nearest Railway Station: Bhubaneswar
Nearest Airport: Bhubaneswar
How to reach: Well connected by road, rail and air
Hotel: There are many options across the city
Restaurants: Varieties of options

Bhubaneswar is not only about the gigantic Lingaraja temple or the architectural marvels such as Raja Rani temple or Parasurameshwar temple. The city has a lot more to offer for any enthusiastic and art loving traveler or devotee. The city, which is the capital city of Odisha (formerly Orissa) state of India, is called as 'the City of Temples'. It once had around 3000 temples and even today hundreds of temples are located in every nook and corner of this heritage rich city. Let us explore an unknown and abondoned but extremely beautiful temple named Sari Deul temple in this article.

Location:

It is very difficult to provide the exact location of small and little known temples. Sari temple is located on the right side of the road branching from Ratha road to Bindu Sagar, on the southern banks.

Architecture and Temple Layout:

Sari temple was built by the Gangas Kings in the 13th century CE. According to me, it should be considered as one of the most beautiful temples in Bhubaneswar. It is unfortunate that it is in a neglected state and a lot of encroachments have happened near this ancient site. In fact, the temple is located in a very narrow lane and it is very difficult to click proper photographs of the site. For name sake, it is under the protection of ASI and hardly any protection or care is taken for this heritage rich architectural marvel.

The temple has sanctum sanctorum with Rekha type vimana. It does not enshrine any deity although it used to be a temple of Lord Shiva. There is Jagmohana with Pidha. The vimana and jagamohana are Panchanga Bada in elevation. The vimana is Sapta Ratha and jagmohana is Nava Ratha on plan.

The entire temple looks awesome and not even a small piece of wall is left without decorations or sculptures. The entire exterior walls of temple are decorated with architectural motifs such as Pidha Mundi and Khakhara Mundi, Naga stambhas, and others. Also, they contain the sculptures/carvings of mythological animals like Virala and Gaja Kranta, flowers, creepers, scroll works, sages, royal figures, warriors, some deities such as Krishna and Parvati, Dikpalas and their consorts such as Indra, Indrani, etc., animals such as elephants, lions, etc. Even few amorous sculptures are also found.


The decorations on the exterior walls are very intricate and attractive. In fact, although hundreds of architecturally beautiful temples are found across Bhubaneswar, only very few temples have such intricate sculptures. Another important feature of the temple is that not only the sanctorum walls but even the walls of Jagmohana are found with intricate sculptures. 

Even the windows of this temple look artistic. They are not ordinary but balustrated windows with the sculptures of Nayikas (dancing girls) are found in the place of rods. The vimana as well as the entrance the temple have Navagraha panels and Lakshmi relief images.


The sculptures of Nayikas in different postures that are found in large numbers are outstanding. The sculptures of Dikpalas and their consorts found in this temple are rare which cannot be easily found in the other temples of Bhubaneswar. Only Parvati is found as the Parsvadevta (niche) image.

Let me reiterate. This extraordinary monument should be given importance. At least it should be properly protected. Already a lot of sculptures appear to be missing and broken. It appears that the materials of the temple are being used by the local people to build their houses. It is highly unfortunate to find people do not respect this great heritage property of our country but even try to slowly destroy the same.

Let us protect and support our heritage!

Happy travelling.




June 27, 2015

Bakresvara Temple - Bhubaneswar

Site Name: Bakresvara Temple 
Site Type: Hindu ancient temple
Location:   Near Bharati Matha, Bhubaneswar city, Odisha state, India
Highlights: Architecturally beautiful ancient temple - belongs to 13th century CE - Gangas period 
Nearest Railway Station: Bhubaneswar
Nearest Airport: Bhubaneswar
How to reach: Well connected by road, rail and air
Hotel: There are many options across the city
Restaurants: Varieties of options 


Bhubaneswar is not only about the gigantic Lingaraja temple or the architectural marvels such as Raja Rani temple or Parasurameshwar temple. The city has a lot more to offer for any enthusiastic and art loving traveler or devotee. The city, which is the capital city of Odisha (formerly Orissa) state of India, is called as 'the City of Temples'. It once had around 3000 temples and even today hundreds of temples are located in every nook and corner of this heritage rich city. Let us explore an unknown temple named Bakresvara temple in this article.

Location:

It is very difficult to provide the exact location of small and little known temples. Bakresvara temple is located next to Yamesvara temple on the left side of the road branching from Badheibanka Chowk to Jambesvara Patna near Bharati Matha.


Architecture and Temple Layout:

Bakresvara Siva Temple is located next to Yamesvara temple. Similar to Yamesvara temple, this was also built by the Ganga Kings in the 13th century CE. Compared to Yamesvara temple, this one is smaller in size.

The temple has sanctum sanctorum with a Rekha type Vimana which is Sapta ratha on plan. It has Pidha type Jagmohana which is Nava ratha on plan. There is no deity found in the sanctorum. This is not a living temple and is being maintained by ASI. There are no sculptures on the temple walls; however, there are sculptural and architectural motifs found. 

Happy travelling.


June 26, 2015

Yamesvara Temple - Bhubaneswar

Site Name: Yamesvara Temple (also pronounced as Jamesvara)
Site Type: Hindu ancient temple
Location:   Near Bharati Matha, Bhubaneswar city, Odisha state, India
Highlights: Architecturally beautiful ancient temple - belongs to 13th century CE - Gangas period - one of the most beautiful temples of Bhubaneswar
Nearest Railway Station: Bhubaneswar
Nearest Airport: Bhubaneswar
How to reach: Well connected by road, rail and air
Hotel: There are many options across the city
Restaurants: Varieties of options 

Bhubaneswar is not only about the gigantic Lingaraja temple or the architectural marvels such as Raja Rani temple or Parasurameshwar temple. The city has a lot more to offer for any enthusiastic and art loving traveler or devotee. The city, which is the capital city of Odisha (formerly Orissa) state of India, is called as 'the City of Temples'. It once had around 3000 temples and even today hundreds of temples are located in every nook and corner of this heritage rich city. Let us explore an unknown but extremely beautiful temple named Yamesvara temple in this article.

Location:

It is very difficult to provide the exact location of small and little known temples. Yamesvara (the local people from Bhubaneswar sometimes pronounce it as Jamesvara) temple is located on the left side of the road branching from Badheibanka Chowk to Jambesvara Patna near Bharati Matha.

Architecture and Temple Layout:

Yamesvara temple belongs to 13th or 14th century CE and was built by the Gangas Kings. 

Although the temple has Shiva Linga, hardly anyone uses the shrines for worship or hardly any daily pooja is conducted. The temple is under the control of ASI.

The temple is huge. The main shrine is big and architecturally beautiful. It enshrines Shiva Linga idol. The vimana is tall and is or rekha style. There is a big Pidha type Jagmohana. In Jagmohana there are two Parvati idols and one unidentified idol is found. In addition, there is a detached front side mandapa with a lot of pillars and the missing ceiling. Even Nandi is found in a small raised mandapa (something similar to what is called as Nandi mandapa in South Indian temples).  Two stone deep stambhas, one damaged and another in good condition, are also found near the Nandi mandapa.

The interior walls are plain. But the exterior walls as well as the vimana are intricately decorated and full of sculptures that include the dancing girls, amorous couples, ladies riding lions, elephant procession, Nagas, etc. The typical Kalingan style lions with the first two legs raised and lions on top of elephants heads are found in various places across the temple walls and vimana. There are damaged Ganesha and Kartikeya idols are found as the niche images.

Apart from the artistically beautiful sculptures across the walls, the entrance has Navagraha panel and Lakshmi relief image. 

In addition to this main shrine, there are four small shrines located in the prakara. Some of them are located partially underground. Apart from in these sub-shrines, few Shiva Lingas are found outside in the prakara.

This temple has awesome features and it is definitely one of the best and beautiful temples in Bhubaneswar. It is unfortunate that it is not so popular like Lingaraja or Raja Rani temples.

Happy travelling. 







June 25, 2015

Talesvara Shiva Temple - Bhubaneswar

Site Name: Talesvara Shiva Temple
Site Type: Hindu ancient temple
Location:   Near Lingaraja temple, Bhubaneswar city, Odisha state, India
Highlights: Architecturally beautiful ancient temple
Nearest Railway Station: Bhubaneswar
Nearest Airport: Bhubaneswar
How to reach: Well connected by road, rail and air
Hotel: There are many options across the city
Restaurants: Varieties of options 

Bhubaneswar is not only about the gigantic Lingaraja temple or the architectural marvels such as Raja Rani temple or Parasurameshwar temple. The city has a lot more to offer for any enthusiastic and art loving traveler or devotee. The city, which is the capital city of Odisha (formerly Orissa) state of India, is called as 'the City of Temples'. It once had around 3000 temples and even today hundreds of temples are located in every nook and corner of this heritage rich city. Let us explore an unknown temple named Talesvara Shiva temple in this article.


Location:

It is very difficult to provide the exact location of small and little known temples. Also, there are so many temples in the name of Talesvara in Bhubaneswar. This particular temple is located in the Bharahi Matha Complex in Badehibanka Chowk in Bhunabeswar. The nearest temples to this site are Chitrakarini temple and Papanasini temple. 

Temple Layout:

Talesvara Shiva temple is located in the Bharati Matha complex. Bharati Matha is one of the ancient and popular mathas in Bhubaneswar. The religious ceremonies and marriage ceremonies keep happening in this site.

Talesvara temple is very small temple which has just one sanctum santorum. The vimana is very tall and is of Rekha deul type. There is no Jagmohana.  Inside the sanctorum the Shiva Linga idol is kept and it is a living temple where worship is still performed. (It should be noted that there are many temples where idols are not found in Bhubaneswar). At the entrance of the sanctorum the panel of Navagraha is found. 

The temple belongs to 11th century CE and was built by the Somavanshi Kings.

Happy travelling.

June 23, 2015

Maitreswara Temple - Bhubaneswar

Site Name: Maitreswara Temple
Site Type: Hindu ancient temple
Location:   Near Lingaraja temple, Bhubaneswar city, Odisha state, India
Highlights: Architecturally beautiful ancient temple
Nearest Railway Station: Bhubaneswar
Nearest Airport: Bhubaneswar
How to reach: Well connected by road, rail and air
Hotel: There are many options across the city
Restaurants: Varieties of options 

Bhubaneswar is not only about the gigantic Lingaraja temple or the architectural marvels such as Raja Rani temple or Parasurameshwar temple. The city has a lot more to offer for any enthusiastic and art loving traveler or devotee. The city, which is the capital city of Odisha (formerly Orissa) state of India, is called as 'the City of Temples'. It once had around 3000 temples and even today hundreds of temples are located in every nook and corner of this heritage rich city. Let us explore an unknown temple named Maitreswara temple in this article.


Location:

It is very difficult to provide the exact location of small and little known temples. Maitreswara temple is located on the right side of the Ratha Road leading from Lingaraja temple to Badehibanka Chowk in Bhunabeswar. The nearest temples to this site are Chitrakarini temple and Papanasini temple. 



Temple Layout:

The temple complex has one main temple and another small temple.

There is another temple called Maitreswar temple located within the complex of Papanasini. Let us not get confused with that.

The main temple is facing the east direction. It has Shiva Linga in the sanctum santorum. The vimana is of rekha deula type and the Jagmohana has pyramidal shaped (Pidha) roof. The entrance has the Navagraha panel. The walls have niche idols of Ganesha, Kartikeya and Durga, but all of them are broken partially. There are no sculptures found in the vimana and it is pretty plain. As the main temple has all the features such as vimana, Jagmohana with Pidha and niche idols completely, it looks awesome.

This sandstone temple with pancharatha plan can be dated to the 13th century CE and was built by the Gangas. 

The smaller temple just has sanctum santorum with rekha type vimana and it does not have Jagmohana. The sanctorum enshrines the idol of Shiva Linga. The walls have the niche idols (Parsvadevta) of Ganesha, Kartikeya and Parvati. Next to this temple, two Shiva Lingas are found. This temple can also be dated to the 13th century CE and was built by the Gangas.

Happy travelling.






June 22, 2015

Papanasini Temple Complex - Bhubaneswar

Site Name: Papanasini Temple Complex
Site Type: Hindu ancient temple
Location:   Near Lingaraja temple, Bhubaneswar city, Odisha state, India
Highlights: Architecturally beautiful ancient temples
Nearest Railway Station: Bhubaneswar
Nearest Airport: Bhubaneswar
How to reach: Well connected by road, rail and air
Hotel: There are many options across the city
Restaurants: Varieties of options 

Bhubaneswar is not only about the gigantic Lingaraja temple or the architectural marvels such as Raja Rani temple or Parasurameshwar temple. The city has a lot more to offer for any enthusiastic and art loving traveler or devotee. The city, which is the capital city of Odisha (formerly Orissa) state of India, is called as 'the City of Temples'. It once had around 3000 temples and even today hundreds of temples are located in every nook and corner of this heritage rich city. Let us explore a little known temple named Papanasini temple in this article.
Papanasini and Baneswar Shiva Temples

Location:

It is very difficult to provide the exact location of small and little known temples. Papanasini group of temples, though is historically prominent and architecturally important, remains little known. It is located on the left side of the Ratha Road leading from Lingaraja temple to Badehibanka Chowk in Bhunabeswar. The nearest temple to this complex is Chitrakarini temple. 



Unknown Temple, Papanasini Complex
Complex:

Papanasini temple complex has the following sites:
  • Papanasini Tank
  • Papanasini Temple
  • Baneswar Shiva Temple
  • Maitreswara Temple
Papanasini Tank:

Papanasini tank is a beautiful tank that belongs to the temple but it is unfortunately poorly maintained. Locally known as Papanasini Kunda, it was built in the 11th century CE. In and around this tank, there are many heritage rich ancient temples the main being Papanasini temple.

Papanasini Temple:

Although the temple complex is called as Papanasini Temple Complex, the actual Papanasini temple is not the main building in the complex. It is a small temple lying in a corner in this complex. The temple just has sanctum sanctorum and it does not have Jagmohana. The vimana is Pidha type (pyramidal in shape). There is no deity found currently in this tiny Shiva temple. The temple is facing towards the southern direction. The entrance has Navagraha panel. The temple was built around 14th or 15th century CE.
Maitreswara Temple

Baneswar Shiva Temple:

To the east of Papanasini temple, there is a small temple named Baneswar Shiva temple. The temple has Triratha Vimana. The niches around the temple wall are empty without any idols. The deity of the temple is Shiva Linga. Nandi idol is found facing towards the deity. The temple is facing towards east direction and it does not have Jagmohan. The temple can be dated back to Somavamshi period in the 9th century CE.


Unknown Temple, Papanasini Compled

Another Temple:

There is another Shiva temple in Papanasini temple complex. The name is not known. It has tall rekha deul type vimana and Pidha type (pyramidal) Jagmohana. There is no deity inside the sanctorum nowadays. The Navagraha panel is found at the entrance of the temple. The walls around the temple has good sculptures. This temple was built by Suryavamsi Gajapati ruler Kapilendradeva in 1449 CE. There are few records which call this temple also as Papanasini temple.



Maitreswara Temple
Maitreswara Temple:

Maitreswara temple is the main temple in the complex. It has rekha deul type vimana on top of the sanctum sanctorum and Pidha type roof for Jagmohana. There is no deity found in the sanctorum. The upper portion of vimana as well as Jagmohana are broken. There are a lot of beautiful sculptures around the walls of the temple such as Nagas, Mithuna figures, dancing girls, elephant procession, etc.
The temple was built by the Gangas in the 13th century CE.

Happy travelling.



June 19, 2015

Chitrakarini Temple - Bhubaneswar

Site Name: Chitrakarini Temple
Site Type: Hindu ancient Shakti temple
Location:   Near Lingaraja temple, Bhubaneswar city, Odisha state, India
Highlights: 13th century architecturally beautiful temple built by the Gangas; Panchayatana style temple
Nearest Railway Station: Bhubaneswar
Nearest Airport: Bhubaneswar
How to reach: Well connected by road, rail and air
Hotel: There are many options across the city
Restaurants: Varieties of options 

Bhubaneswar is not only about the gigantic Lingaraja temple or the architectural marvels such as Raja Rani temple or Parasurameshwar temple. The city has a lot more to offer for any enthusiastic and art loving traveler or devotee. The city, which is the capital city of Odisha (formerly Orissa) state of India, is called as 'the City of Temples'. It once had around 3000 temples and even today hundreds of temples are located in every nook and corner of this heritage rich city. Though the city is originally a Saivite center where Lord Shiva was given importance, historically Shaktism also got prominence and several temples for various forms of Shakti were built. One of the important temples of Shakti in Bhubaneswar is Chitrakarini temple. Let us explore this beautiful temple in this article.

Location:

It is very difficult to provide the exact location of small and little known temples. Chitrakarini temple, though is historically prominent and architecturally important, remains little known. It is located in a small lane backside to the famous Lingaraja temple. You need to take the road on the left side of Linga Raja temple (called as Lingaraja Temple Road), cross the place where the aerial view of Lingaraja temple can be photographed, and also cross the Parvati temple entrance and come to the end of Lingaraja complex. After this complex ends, you will find a small lane to your left where you can find Chitrakarini temple. 

History:

Chitrakarini temple belongs to the later group temples of Bhubaneswar. It is certain that it was built by the Ganga Kings. It was perhaps built by the Ganga King Narasimha Deva I, who was also called as Parama Mahesvara, in the middle of 13th century CE.

Architecture and Temple Layout:

Although the Orissan temple architecture style falls under the broad category of Nagara style of temple architecture, it has its unique and distinct features. Within the Orissan temple architecture style, there are three types based on the period of the construction and which dynasty constructed the temple. Chitrakarini temple, which was built by the Ganga Kings in the 13th century CE, is a Panchayatana temple, where there is a main shrine in the middle with four sub-shrines in the four corners. 

The main shrine has two divisions - sanctum sanctorum (moolasthan) and Jagmohan. The other four shrines have only sanctum. All the sanctum sanctorums have tall vimanas (called as rekha deul as per the Orissan term). The Jagmohan of the main shrine has the pyramidal shaped roof called Pidha. It should be noted that Orissan temple architecture has tall vimanas unlike Dravidian temple architecture where the vimanas are shorter.

In the main shrine, Chamunda's idol is found. It is a red colored stone idol. In the Jagmohan, the idols of Hanuman and bas relief idols of Navagraha in a single row are found. All these idols are not old as the temple. It is said that once, there were five idols in the main shrine and four idols each in the other four shrines, making totally nine idols of Shakti in this temple. However, no idol is found in the other four shrines nowadays.

The vimana, pidha as well as the walls of the shrines are intricately decorated and lot of sculptures such as elephants, lions, lions controlling elephants, dancing girls, erotic figures, Nagas and deities are found on them.

When you go to Bhubaneswar, do not stop just by visiting one or two well known temples. Unless you visit such little known temples, you would not get the complete heritage feel of the city.

Happy travelling.




June 15, 2015

Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves

Site Name: Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
Site Type: Ancient Jain rock cut and cave shrines
Location:  Near Bhubaneswar city, Odisha state, India
Highlights: The sites belong to 1st century CE; very rare and ancient site in Eastern India for Jain architecture
Nearest Railway Station: Bhubaneswar
Nearest Airport: Bhubaneswar
How to reach: Well connected by road, rail and air
Hotel: Go to Bhubaneswar where there are many options
Restaurants: Varieties of options - only in the nearby Bhubaneswar
Opening Time: Sunrise to Sunset
Entry Fee: INR 5 for Indians and INR 100 for foreigners
Caution Note: Beware of monkeys; hundreds of monkeys wander the site. Avoid the priests in Durga temple in Khandagiri caves if you do not want to hear false history and lose your money to them. Some caves are not easily accessible; if you are a lady or a person who does not speak local language, it's better to get accompanied by some local.

Bhubaneswar aka Bhubaneshwar is the capital city of Odisha (called as Orissa earlier) state of India. It has numerous architecturally beautiful temples and is also referred as the 'City of Temples'. Along with Puri and Konark, this city is called as 'Swarna Tribuja' (Golden Triangle). 

Around 7 kms from the historic city of Bhubaneswar, there are two historically significant sites called as Udayagiri and Khandagiri. Let us explore in detail about these sites.

Introduction:

On either side of the National Highway No. 5 in the outskirts of Bhubaneswar, the twin hills of Udayagiri and Khandagiri are located. These two hills represent one of the earliest Jain rock-cut architectural styles in the Eastern India. In the ancient times, Udayagiri was called as Kumari and Khandagiri was called as Kumara Parvata. These hills were discovered in 1825 CE by A. Stirling. 

There are 18 caves in Udayagiri hill and 15 caves in Khandagiri hill. The caves are meant for the residence of Jain ascetics and hence they provide hardly any amenities. Most of the caves consist of a row of cells open either to the verandah or to the open space.Some of the caves are double storeyed. Although all the caves were meant to be shelters for the Jain monks, some of them were converted into shrines and few relief and bas relief images were added in the later period. The caves in Udayagiri are in much better shape than that of Khandagiri hill. 

History:

The Udayagiri and Khandagiri cave shrines were started by the great Kalinga Emperor Kharavela in the 1st century BCE. It appears that his successors also built some of the shrines later here. The activities continued till the period of Somavanshis in the 10th century CE. 

After losing the glory of Kalinga due to devastating defeat by Ashoka, the Mahameghavahana (Chedi) dynasty of Kalinga (present day Odisha state) became very popular and powerful during the reign of Kharavela. The main source of information about this King is taken from the Hatigumpha inscription found in Udayagiri caves. The caves in both the hills were built as shelters for the Jain monks by this Emperor who was practising Jainism. It is evident that this region was a powerful Jain center in those days.

Udayagiri:

The Udayagiri hills fall on your right side when you enter into this area from Bhubaneswar. There are 18 caves in Udayagiri. Compared to Khandagiri, Udayagiri offers more beautiful and better maintained cave shrines.

1. Rani Gumpha

Rani Gumpha is the largest and most popular cave among the caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri. The word 'Rani' means Queen. Although it is not an architectural marvel, it has some ancient beautiful sculptures. 

This cave is double storeyed. Each storey has three wings and the central wing is bigger among all the three wings. The lower floor has seven entrances in the middle wing whereas the upper floor has nine columns. The upper portion of the central wing has relief images depicting the victory march of a king. Many of the cells have carved dwara pala images; some of them are disfigured. The area that connects the central wing with right and left wings have some panels where the sculptures of wild animals, fruit laden trees, human figures, women playing musical instruments, monkeys and playful elephants are found. The pilasters contain the toranas (arches) decorated with sculptures of Jain religious importance and royal scenes. 

2. Bajaghara Gumpha

Bajaghara Gumpha is very simple and small. It has stone bed and pillow and it was obviously used as the Jain monks' shelter in the ancient times. Apart from the plain rectangular shaped pillars, there is no other sculpture found in this cave.

3. Chota Hathi Gumpha

Chota Hathi Gumpha is small in size. It has six small elephant figures in the facade. The word 'chota hathi' means 'small elephant'.

4. Alkapuri Gumpha

Alkapuri Gumpha has a relief sculpture of a lion holding its prey in its mouth. The pillars with the human figures (divine beings) with wings are found in this cave. It is double storeyed. 

5. Jaya Vijaya Gumpha

Jaya Vijaya Gumpha is double storeyed. It has a relief image of Bodhi tree with umbrella on its top and flanked by people worshipping it.

6. Panasa Gumpha

Panasa Gumpha is very small and simple cave without any significant features.

7. Thakurani Gumpha

Thakurani Gumpha is double storeyd but is very simple in style. It has few tiny relief sculptures.

8. Patalapuri Gumpha

Patalapuri Gumpha is slightly bigger with a pillared verandah. However, there is no noteable feature in this cave.

9. Mancapuri and Swargapuri Gumpha

Mancapuri and Swargapuri Gumpha is double storeyed. It has a damaged Jain religious symbol which was probably used for worship.

There are three inscriptions found in this cave. One inscription talks about the chief queen of Kharavela. The other two inscriptions talk about Kudepasiri, the successor of Kharavela and Badukha, the son or brother of Kudepasiri.

10. Ganesha Gumpha

Ganesha Gumpha is one of the most important caves in Udayagiri. The cave got this name due to carved figure of Ganesha on the back of its right cell. Of course, it would have been carved in the later period and it cannot be the original work. The cave has two big statues of elephants carrying garlands at the entrance. Also, the carved figures of dwara palas are found at the entrances. The carvings in this cave narrate the story of the elopement of Bassavadatta, Princess of Ujjayini, with King Udayan of Kausambi in the company of Vasantaka. 

Above this cave, the ruins of an apsidal structure is found. It is believed that the legendary Kalinga Jina was placed here once. Kalinga Jina was the idol of Rishabhanatha, which had been taken away from Kalinga by Mahapadma Nanda. After 300 years, Kharavela won the Sunga King Bahasatimita and brought it back.

11. Jambesvara Gumpha

Jambesvara Gumpha is a very simple and small cave with one column and two pilasters. The inscription tells that it is the cave of Nayaki, wife of Mahamade.

12. Vyaghra Gumpha

Vyaghra Gumpha is one of the popular caves in Udayagiri. The cave, which is in ruins, has the entrance carves like a large mouth of a tiger. It is one of the most photographed site in Udayagiri. The word 'vyaghra' means tiger. The inscription found here tells that this cave belongs to the city judge Sabhuti.

13. Sarpa Gumpha

Sarpa Gumpha is unusually very small cave. There are two inscriptions found in this cave. The word 'sarpa' means snake.

14. Hathi Gumpha

Hathi Gumpha is a natural cavern. On the wall, the inscription erected by Kharavela is found. It is the main source of history of Kharavela.

The word 'hathi' means elephant.

15. Dhanaghara Gumpha

Dhanaghara Gumpha is a small cave which has two wide pillars and dwara pala sculptures carved at the entrance.

16. Haridasa Gumpha

Haridasa Gumpha is a small cave with three entrances and a verandah in the front side. There is an inscription found here.

17. Jagannatha Gumpha

Jagannatha Gumpha is roughly cut cave with three entrances.

18. Rasui Gumpha

Rasui Gumpha is unusually very small cave.

Khandagiri:

The Khandagiri hills fall on your left side when you enter into this area from Bhubaneswar. There are 15 caves in Khandagiri. 

1. Tatowa Gumpha


The parrots are carved above the entrance arch and hence it is called as Tatowa Gumpha. It has two dwarapala figures too.

2. Tatowa Gumpha


The cave sharing the same name with the first cave has a veranda with pilasters containing exquisite carvings.

3. Ananta Gumpha

The cave has sculptures of women, elephants, geese, etc.

4. Tentuli Gumpha


It is a small rock cut chamber with just one column. 

5. Khandagiri Gumpha


It is a roughly cut cell and has double storeys.

6. Dhyana Gumpha


It is a roughly cut cell.

7. Navamuni Gumpha

Navamuni Gumpha is a roughly cut cell with the sculptures of nine Jain Tirthankaras and Sasana Devis.

8. Barabhuji Gumpha


Barabhuji Gumpha has two relief images of twelve armed Sasana Devis, hence it is called as Barabhuji (meaning twelve armed) Gumpha. There are few Tirthankara sculptures also found in this cave. The Sasana Devis are worshiped as Hindu deity Durga nowadays. Funnily, the priests in this shrine claim some Jain Tirthankara sculpture as Surya.

9. Trusula Gumpha


Trusula Gumpha appears to be reconverted in the medieval times. There are three sculptures of Rishabha Deva who is found in the standing posture and look beautiful. Apart from these sculptures there are sculptures of 24 Jain Tirthankaras which look rough.  

10. Ambika Gumpha


Few relief images of Sasana Devis are found here.

11. Lalatendu Keshari Gumpha


The relief images of Mahavira, Parshvanath and few Jain Tirthankaras are found here.

Caves 12, 13 and 15 are unnamed. Cave 14 is very simple and called as Ekadasi Gumpha. 

When you go to Puri or Bhubaneshwar, ensure that you travel to this 2000 years old heritage and historical site too.

Happy travelling.